Donnerstag 19. Juli 2018
Food Sovereignty and Alternative Development in Palestine
Volume XXXIV • Issue 1 • 2018
Said Zawahari , 74. Palestinian Shepherd outside his home and small farm, overshadowed by the vast Jewish settlement of Har Homa, in the Palestinian West Bank.“12 years ago the hill in front of us was a forest. Seeing the huge Jewish settlement the

After more than 20 years of the Oslo process and its dominant development model, the multiple crises in Palestine lend urgency to the exploration of alternatives to the status quo. This special issue contributes to current debates on alternative development and ‘resistance economy’ by discussing the significance agricultural cooperatives have in the occupied Palestinian territories and linking their experiences to the food sovereignty approach.
What kind of alternative development is envisaged by agricultural cooperatives in Palestine in response to neoliberal development models of economic growth and the Israeli occupation? How can community-based agricultural cooperatives initiate processes of alternative development in Palestine?
The authors of this issue contribute to a better understanding of the multiple (development) crises in Palestine and analyse cooperatives’ experiences and strategies from academic as well as activist perspectives.

 

Schwerpunktredaktion: Helmut Krieger

Print ISSN: 0258-2384│Online ISSN: 2414-3197

 

 

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Inhalt dieser Ausgabe
Krieger, Helmut

Nurturing Alternative Development: Agricultural Cooperatives in Palestine

Sprache: ENGLISCHSeiten: 4-13https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-34-1-4
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

Introduction

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Dana, Tariq (2014): A Resistance Economy: What is it and can it provide an alternative? Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung Regional Office Palestine. http://www.rosaluxemburg.ps/?publication=a-resistance-economy-what-is-it-and-can-it-provide-an-alternative, 20.02.2018.


El Zein, Rayya (2017): Developing a Palestinian Resistance Economy through Agricultural Labor. In: Journal of Palestine Studies 46(3), 7-26. https://doi.org/10.1525/jps.2017.46.3.7
Hammami, Rema (2006): Palestinian NGOs Since Oslo: From NGO Politics to Social Movements? Middle East Report 214(18), 16-19.


Hanafi, Sari/Tabar, Linda (2005): The Emergence of a Palestinian Globalized Elite: Donors, International Organizations and Local NGOs. Jerusalem: Institute of Jerusalem Studies.
Hanieh, Adam (2013): Lineages of Revolt: Issues of Contemporary Capitalism in the Middle East. Chicago: Haymarket Books.


Hever, Shir (2010): The Political Economy of Israel’s Occupation: Repression Beyond Exploitation. London: Pluto Press.


Hilal, Jamil/Al Kafri, Saleh/Kuttab, Eileen (2008): Unprotected Employment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: A Gender Equality and Workers' Rights Perspective. ILO-Report. http://www.ilo.org/gender/Informationresources/WCMS_097715/lang--en/index.htm, 28.02.2018.


ILO – International Labour Organization (2014): Findings of the Assessment of Agricultural Cooperatives in West Bank: Challenges and Opportunities. http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/cooperatives/publications/WCMS_566377/lang--en/index.htm, 20.02.2018.


Jad, Islah (2008): Palestinian Women’s Movement – From Active Militants to Stateless Citizens. In: Farsakh, Leila (ed.): Special Focus: Commemorating the Nasksa, Evoking the Nakba. The MIT Electronic Journal of Middle East Studies. Wiesbaden: Springer, 94-112.


Khan, Mushtaq Husain (2004): Evaluating the Emerging Palestinian State: ‘Good Governance versus ‘Transformation Potential’. In: Khan, Mushtaq Husain/Giacaman, George/Amundsen, Inge (Hrsg.): State Formation in Palestine: Viability and Governance during a Social Transformation. Abingdon/New York, 13-63.


Krieger, Helmut (2015): Umkämpfte Staatlichkeit. Palästina zwischen Besatzung, Entwicklung und politischen Islam. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.


Kuttab, Eileen (2006): The Paradox of Women’s Work: Coping, Crisis, and Family Survival. In: Taraki, Lisa (ed.): Living Palestine, Family Survival, Resistance, and Mobility under Occupation. USA: Syracuse University Press.


Kuttab, Eileen (2010): Empowerment as Resistance: Conceptualizing Palestinian Women's Empowerment. In: Development. Society for International Development 53(2), 247-253. https://doi.org/10.1057/dev.2010.22


OCHAoPt – United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs-occupied Palestinian territory (2016): Gaza two years on. https://www.ochaopt.org/pages/gaza-two-years-on, 9.03.2018.


Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung/Center for Development Studies (2015, ed.): Critical Readings of Development under Colonialism. Towards a Political Economy of Liberation in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Palestine: Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung.


Tabar, Linda (2015): People’s Power: Lessons from the First Intifada. In: Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung/Center for Development Studies (ed.): Critical Readings of Development under Colonialism. Towards a Political Economy of Liberation in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Palestine: Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung, 135-169.


UNCTAD – United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2015): The Besieged Palestinian Agricultural Sector. New York and Geneva.


WFP et al. – World Food Programme (2013): Socio-Economic and Food Security Survey. West Bank and Gaza Strip, 2012. https://www.wfp.org/content/state-palestine-socio-economic-food-security-survey-2012-august-2013, 20.02.2018.

Introduction

Salzmann, Philipp

A Food Regime’s Perspective on Palestine: Neoliberalism and the Question of Land and Food Sovereignty within the Context of Occupation

Sprache: ENGLISCHSeiten: 14-34https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-34-1-14
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

The question of land and its strategic, socio-political and agricultural relevance within the Israeli-Palestinian conflict must be understood against the background of the dominant position of Israel as occupational power, heavily affecting the access to, and the control over natural resources. The subjects discussed within this article are intrinsically linked via the usage of the food regime approach as analytical tool, and the article’s specific focus on land. An attempt is made to grasp the neoliberal restructuring of Palestine and its developments in the agricultural sector, paying particular attention to land grabbing. Neoliberalism aided the institutionalising and normalising of accumulation by dispossession in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt), these being identified as a key feature of the corporate food regime, and leading to the marginalisation of rural communities and to depeasantisation. The crises of the food regime spurred food sovereignty movements all around the globe. While analysing the political demands and approaches of the concept of food sovereignty centered around natural resources, this article also explores why the concept offers various ideas for an alternative development in Palestine. This paper tries to show how specific dynamics observed by the food regime analytics can be helpful in contextualising developments within the oPt – ranging from neoliberal restructuring to the emergence of food sovereignty.

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food sovereignty, Palestine, food regime, land grabbing, neoliberalism, alternative development

AbdulMajeed, Ayman

Conceptual and Methodological Approaches to Reading the Realm of Cooperatives in Occupied Palestine

Sprache: ENGLISCHSeiten: 35-61https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-34-1-35
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

In his book Victims of Development, Jeremy Seabrook analyses and criticises the impact of development on local populations, which brought to mind the Palestinian development conditions and prompted this important contextual and methodical study of Palestinian cooperatives as alternative methods of development that arose within the context of living under global colonial conditions. Several controversial questions came out of this study of cooperatives. The most crucial issues in the debate are whether to surrender to that reality and de facto context, or attempt to change it; to become captive to consumerism or redeem production that is based on experience and expertise, and whether to give in to individualism that undermines self-reliance or revert to productive collective action. The study also raises the critical question of whether to accept the loss of local experiences and valuable initiatives instead of moving into the path of empowerment and change. These are the actualities and alternatives for change revealed through the methodological conceptual approach of this study within a critical reading of the experience of cooperatives in a colonial context.

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agricultural cooperatives, roots of change, alternative methods of development, colonialism, culture of change

Kuttab, Eileen

Alternative Development: A Response to Neo-Liberal De-Development from a Gender Perspective

Sprache: ENGLISCHSeiten: 62-90https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-34-1-62
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

This article is a critical reflection on, and contextualisation of, the Palestinian ‘de-development’ process over the last 50 years of Israeli settler-colonial occupation. It also highlights the Palestinian Authority’s neo-liberal economic practice of structural adjustment post Oslo, that resulted in weakening the resistance economy and community development initiatives, while blocking any opportunity for steadfastness and self-reliance. It presents local community responses in a historical and gender perspective. Kuttab re-examines and re-visits ‘alternative development’ as a concept and paradigm through a case study of the women's cooperative ‘Our Production is Our Pride’, which endorsed principles of resistance, steadfastness, independence and liberation.

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Taraki, Lisa (1991): The development of political consciousness among Palestinians in the occupied territories, 1967-1987. In: Nassar, Jamal Raji/Heacock, Roger (ed.): Intifada, Palestine at the Crossroads. New York: Praeger Publishers.


Taraki, Lisa (1997): Palestinian Society: Contemporary Realities and Trends. In: Palestinian Women. A Status Report. Birzeit University: Women's Studies Program.


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settler colonialism, resistance economy, empowerment, alternative development, cooperatives, self-reliance

Arafeh, Nur

‘Resistance Economy’: A New Buzzword? (Essay)

Sprache: ENGLISCHSeiten: 91-102https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-34-1-91
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  • Literatur
  • Keywords

Essay

Abed, George T. (1989): The political economy of resistance in the occupied territories. Journal of Refugee Studies 2 (1), 55-63. https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/2.1.55


Abu Kishk, Bakir (1988): Industrial development in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. In: Abed, George T. (ed.): The Palestinian economy: Studies in development under prolonged occupation. London: Routledge.


Al-Botmeh, Samia (2013): The Palestinian development discourse and strategies for change in the West Bank. Birzeit: Centre for Development Studies-Birzeit University. (Arabic)


Awartani, Hisham (1988): Agricultural development and policies in the West Bank and Gaza. In: Abed, George T. (ed.): The Palestinian economy: Studies in development under prolonged occupation. London: Routledge.


Dakkak, Ibrahim (1988): Development from within: A strategy for survival. In: Abed, George T. (ed.): The Palestinian economy: Studies in development under prolonged occupation. London: Routledge.


Dana, Tariq (2014): A Resistance economy: What is it and can it provide an alternative? Rosa Luxemburg Foundation.


Dick, Harold (1988): Towards a strategy for development: Empowerment and entrepreneurship. In: Abed, George T. (ed.): The Palestinian economy: Studies in development under prolonged occupation. London: Routledge.


El Zein, Rayya (2017): Developing a Palestinian Resistance Economy through Agricultural Labor. In: Journal of Palestine Studies 46(3), 7-26. https://doi.org/10.1525/jps.2017.46.3.7


Farsakh, Leila (2016): Palestinian economic development: Paradigm shifts since the first Intifada. Journal of Palestine Studies 45(2), 55-71. https://doi.org/10.1525/jps.2016.45.2.55


Hanieh, Adam (2016): Development as struggle: Confronting the reality of power in Palestine. Journal of Palestine Studies, 45(4), 32-47. https://doi.org/10.1525/jps.2016.45.4.32


IFPO - Institut Français du Proche-Orient, An-Najah University (2015): Active citizens producing and consuming in a resistance economy today in Palestine. An-Najah University, Nablus. 8 December 2015.


Khalidi, Raja/Alsattari, Qossay (2014): Strengthening trade and economic interaction between Palestinians in the West Bank and inside Israel: An Arab “north-north” alternative to Israelization. Birzeit: Centre for Development Studies, Birzeit  University.


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Mansour, Antoine (1983) : Palestine: Une économie de résistance en Cisjordanie et à Gaza. Paris: Editions l’Harmattan.


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Mitchell, Timothy (2002): Rule of experts: Egypt, techno-politics, modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Naquib, Fadle M. (2003): Towards conceptualizing a Palestinian development approach (Arabic). Ramallah: The Palestine Economic Policy Research Institute (MAS).


Piran, Shamseddin Jalili /Dorche, Mohammad Soleymani (2015): Resistance economy in international law. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies December 2015, 646-653.


Rijke, Alexandra/van Teeffelen, Toine (2014): To exist is to resist: Sumud, heroism, and the everyday. In: Jerusalem Quarterly 59, 86-99.


Roy, Sara (1995): The Gaza Strip: The political economy of de-development. Washington D.C: Institute for Palestine Studies.


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Tartir, Alaa (2015): Criminalising resistance, entrenching neoliberalism: The Fayyadist paradigm in the Occupied Palestinian West Bank. PhD thesis. London: London School of Economics and Political Science.


Tartir, Alaa/Bahour, Sam/Abdelnour, Samer (2012): Defeating dependency, creating a resistance economy. Al-Shabaka: The Palestinian Policy Network.


Tartir, Alaa/Sansour, Vivien (2014): Palestinian farmers: A last stronghold of resistance. Al-Shabaka: The Palestinian Policy Network.

Essay

Al-Jibeihi, Hiba

‘Protecting our lands and supporting our farmers’ (Interview with Philipp Salzmann)

Sprache: ENGLISCHSeiten: 103-111https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-34-1-103
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

Interview

Krieger, Helmut (2014): Umkämpfte Staatlichkeit. Palästina zwischen Besatzung, Entwicklung und politischen Islam. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.

Interview

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